Drs JP Prinsloo Inc

Homeopathic

Homeopathic Treatment
of Infertility

GLOSSARY OF INFERTILITY TERMINOLOGY

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Abandoned cycle

An IVF cycle cancelled after drug administration has begun and before egg collection.

Abortion

Pregnancy lost before the fetus can survive independently.(threatening or tendency to) Homoeopathy is highly effective in the prevention of abortion, in the acute threatening stage as well as the tendency thereto. Women who had suffered as many as six abortions in succession have been effectively treated, allowing them the blessing of healthy pregnancy and children therafter.

Acrosome

Cap-like structure that surround the sperm head and contains enzymes that help penetration of the egg.

Acrosome reaction

Chemical changes that enable a sperm to penetrate an egg.

Adhesions (Scar Tissue)

Bands of fibrous scar tissue that may bind the pelvic organs or loops of bowel together. Adhesions are important in the treatment of infertility. The infertility treatments of most drugless therapies like Chiropractic, Physiotherapy, Reflexology and Acupuncture are focussed almost exclusively on adhesions / scar tissue. Laparoscopy is often employed from the conventional medical perspective. Homeopathy is renowned for its treatment of adhesions and there are a number of Homeopathic medicines that have a direct specific effect on adhesions, anywhere in the body.

Adrenal gland

A pair of hormone producing glands located above the kidneys.

Agglutination

Clumping sperm together due to infection, inflammation or antibodies.

AID

Artificial Insemination by Donor.

AIDS

Acquired immune-deficiency syndrome; a fatal disease caused by HIV that destroys the immune system's ability to fight infection.

AIH

Artificial Insemination by Husband.

Amenorrhoea

Absence of menstrual cycles for six months or longer. Treated with Homoeopathy, menses are restored naturally without the use of dagerous hormone therapy. A woman aged 25 who had never menstruated since birth was successfully treated and started menstruating after only three months of homoeopathic treatment.

Amniocentesis

A procedure which is usually carried out at around 15-16 weeks of pregnancy. It involves aspirating a small amount of the fluid which surround the baby in the womb. This fluid contains cells from the baby which can then be cultured and tested to determine the baby's chromosome. The procedure is usually performed under ultrasound scan using a fine needle. The risk of causing miscarriage by this procedure is between 0.5 - 1%. The results often take two to three weeks.

Androgens

Male sex hormones that are present in both men and women but in different quantities and producing different effects.

Andrologist

A specialist in male infertility.

Anomaly

Malformation or abnormality in any part of the baby.

Anovulation

Absence of ovulation (failure to ovulate).

Antisperm antibodies

Antibodies produced by the immune system against sperm. It adversely affects sperm function by inhibiting movement of sperm and fertilization. It can be present in males and females.

Artificial insemination

Is placing sperm into the female reproductive tract.

Aspermia

Absence of semen.

ASRM

The American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Assisted hatching

The mechanical, chemical or laser breaching of the gelatinous coating of the egg (zona pellucida).

Asthenozoospermia

Low sperm motility.

Asymptomatic

Without any symptoms.

Atresia

Degeneration and resorption of a follicle before it reaches maturity and ruptures.

Azoospermia

The complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate, is present in about 1% of all men and in 10-15% of infertile men.

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Basal body temperature (BBT) chart

Charting BBT is used to predict the time of ovulation.

Beta hCG test

A blood test used to detect very early pregnancy and evaluate development.

Biochemical pregnancy

When the patient's pregnancy test is positive but no pregnancy is visible on ultrasound scan.

Biopsy

The removal of a piece of tissue for microscopic examination.

Blastocyst

An advanced stage of embryo development, the embryo consists of an outer thin layer of cells, which later develops to placenta and an inner cell mass later develops to fetus.

Blastocyst transfer

The transfer of one or more embryos at the blastocyst stage into the uterine cavity.

Blighted ovum (anembryonic pregnancy)

Fertilized egg that failed to develop properly after implantation. Gestation sac develops in the absence of an embryo.

Bromocriptine (Parlodel)

Tablets used to reduce prolactin production and reduce tumor when present.

Buserelin

Is a GnRh agonist drug used as a nasal spray or by daily injection.

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Cervicitis

Inflammation of the cervix.

Cervix

Neck of womb. It acts as a reservoir for sperm and secretes an alkaline mucus which protect sperm from the acidity of the vagina.

Cervical mucus

The secretion in the cervical canal. The amount and texture changes during the menstrual cycle.

Cervical smear (PAP smear)

A screening test for cancer of the neck of the womb.

Chemotherapy

The use of anticancer drugs to treat or control cancer.

Chlamydia

A sexually transmitted disease, it is a common cause of pelvic infection and subsequent tubal damage and infertility.

Chocolate (Endometriosis) cyst

A cyst inside the ovary filled with old blood. It occurs in Endometriosis.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

A procedure which involve taking a biopsy from the placenta to test the fetus for genetic abnormalities. It is usually carried out under ultrasound scan at about eleven weeks of pregnancy. The placenta has the same genetic make-up as the baby. There is a 2-3% risk of the procedure causing a miscarriage. 

Chromosomes

Thread like structures that lie inside the nucleus of a cell. A human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes are packed up with genes which carry all the information needed for the human body. The 23 pairs of chromosomes include a pair of sex chromosomes that determine the sex of the embryo. There are two types of sex chromosomes, X and Y - the Y is smaller than the X and contain all the essential genes for sex determination. The presence of a Y chromosome ensures a male (XY), its absence ensures a female (XX).

Cilia

Hairlike projections from the cells lining the Fallopian tubes. They play a part in guiding the fertilized egg into the uterus.

Clinical pregnancy

A pregnancy confirmed by increasing levels of hCG and the presence of a gestational sac detected by ultrasound scan or a fetus.

Clomiphene (clomid)

A fertility drug (anti estrogen tablet) used to stimulate ovulation.

Clone

A group of embryos or individuals that are genetically identical.

Congenital

A defect existing since birth.

Cornua

The horns of the uterus where the Fallopian tubes join the uterine cavity.

Cryopreservation

The storage of the sperm, embryos or eggs by freezing at a low temperature (-196°C).

Cryptorchidism

Failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum.

Cyst

Sac filled with fluid.

Cystic fibrosis

A common genetic disease. If both partners carry the gene, there is a 25% chance that the child will have the disease. This is unpleasant and currently there is no cure. It affects the lungs, bowels, pancreas, sweat glands etc.

Cytomegalovirus infection

Infection caused by the cytomegalovirus. Primary infection of the mother during pregnancy may result in the death of the fetus or serious generalized disease of the newborn. More commonly, congenital infection follows a benign course though about 10% of affected children may subsequently be mentally retarded.

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D & C

Dilatation and Curettage. It is the dilatation of the cervical canal followed by the scrapping of the uterine lining.

Dilator

An instrument used to enlarge a small opening.

Danazol

A drug, which reduces estrogen levels and is often used to treat Endometriosis.

Diagnostic laparoscopy

The insertion of a fibre optic telescope into the abdomen to look for abnormalities of the internal pelvic organs.

DIPI

Direct intraperitoneal insemination. This is the injection of washed and prepared sperm into the peritoneal cavity under ultrasound guidance.

Dizygotic

Derived from two. Dizygotic twins were two seperate eggs fertilized by seperate sperm.

Donor insemination

The insemination of donor sperm into the vagina, the cervix, the womb, the tube or peritoneum.

DOT

Direct Oocyte (egg) Transfer into the uterus.

Down-regulation

Suppression of the natural secretion of gonadotropins by using GnRh analogues.

Down's syndrome

A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

An inherited sex-linked muscular disease.

Dysfunctional

Abnormal function.

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Ectopic pregnancy

A pregnancy outside the uterine cavity.

Egg collection

The procedure by which eggs are collected from the woman's ovaries.

Egg donor

A woman who donates her eggs.

Egg recipient

A woman who receives embryos created with donor eggs.

Ejaculate (semen)

The sperm and the seminal fluid that comes out of the urethra when a man has an orgasm.

Ejaculatory ducts

A pair of ducts; each formed by the joining of a seminal vesicle with a vas deferens.

Embryo

A fertilized egg up to eight weeks of development.

Embryo donor

A couple who donate their spare embryos to either infertile couples or for research purposes.

Embryo recipient

A woman who receives one or more donated embryos.

Embryo transfer

The replacement of one or more embryos into the uterine cavity.

Endometrium

The lining of the womb, it undergoes cyclical changes during the menstrual cycle.

Endometriosis

The presence of small implants of endometrial tissue outside the uterus in abnormal locations.

Epididymis

Coiled tubing outside the testicles which store the sperm.

Estradiol

The main female hormone.

Epididymitis

Inflammation of the epididymis

ERPC

Evacuation of Retained Products of Conception.

Estrogens (Oestrogens)

Female sex hormones, a group of hormones that are produced mainly by the ovaries. They are essential for normal sexual development (the breasts, vagina, womb, broad hips and rounded figure etc.) and for the reproductive system (make the cervical mucus amenable to the entry of sperm, prepare the endometrium and regulate the production of FSH and LH).

Estradiol (Oestradiol)

The most potent naturally occurring estrogens in humans.

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Fallopian tubes

A pair of tubes between the uterus and ovaries, where the sperm and egg meet in normal conception.

Fertilization (fertilisation)

The penetration of an egg by sperm to initiate embryo development.

Fetus

The term used for an embryo after the eighth week of development until birth.

Fibroids

Benign tumor made of uterine muscle and connective tissue.

Fimbria

The finger like ends of the Fallopian tubes that sweep over the surface of the ovary, and help to direct the egg into the tube.

Flow cytometry

A method of sperm sorting used for sex selection. X and Y chromosome bearing sperm are stained with different flourescent dyes and then can be sorted by colour.

Follicle

A fluid filled cyst in the ovary in which the egg develops.

Follicular phase

The first half of the menstrual cycle before ovulation.

Frigidity

The inability to become sexually aroused.

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the growth of follicles in the female, and sperm production in the male.

Fundus

The upper region of the uterus. The Fallopian tube open into the opposite corners of the fundus.

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Galactorrhoea

Abnormal milk secretion from the breasts.

Gamete

The male sperm or the female egg.

Gene

The unit of inheritence. Everyone inherits two copies of each gene. One from the father, and one from the mother.

Genome

The basic sets of genes in a chromosome.

Gestational sac

A fluid filled sac that develops within the cavity of the womb early in pregnancy.

GIFT

Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer.

Gonads

Sex organs, the ovaries in the females and the testes in the males.

Gonal-F

A recombinant (genetically engineered) human follicular stimulating hormone, known as a 'fertility drug'.

Gonorrhoea

A sexually transmitted disease that can cause pelvic infection and subsequent pelvic damage and infertility.

GnRh

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, is a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH. GnRh preparation are produced synthetically.

GnRh analogues

A synthetic hormone similar to the natural gonadotropin releasing hormone. Two types are available: agonists and antagonists.

Gonadotropins

Fertility drugs given by injection to stimulate the sex glands  to produce many follicles. They are similar in composition to the natural FSH and LH produced by the pituitary gland.

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Habitual abortion

Repeat miscarriages.

Hemophilia

A sex-linked inherited blood disease found almost exclusively in men. It is characterized by delayed blood clotting and difficulty in controlling hemorrhage, even after minor injury.

Hereditary

A disease transmitted from one's ancestors.

Hepatitis B and C

Viruses that may be transmitted sexually or by blood and can cause infection of the liver which can lead to jaundice or liver failure.

hCG

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone (hCG) is produced in early pregnancy to stimulate the corpus luteum to produce the hormone progesterone and estrogen, and is excreted in the urine (the substance detected in pregnancy tests). Also, hCG may be given by injection to induce ovulation and to support the luteal phase in females. It stimulates the production of the male hormone testosterone in males.

HIV

The Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that causes Acquired Immuno Deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

HFEA

Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority in the UK.

Hirsutism

Abnormal or excessive hair growth in the body and face.

hMG

Human Menopausal Gonadotropin. It consists of FSH and LH.

Hormones

Chemical substances (chemical messengers) secreted by endocrine glands, to regulate activities of certain cells and organs.

HRT

Hormone Replacement Treatment.

Humegon

A fertility drug which is given by injection. It is consists of FSH and LH.

Huntington's disease

An inherited sex-linked nervous disease that develops in adulthood and leads to a state of deteriorated mentality.

Hydrosalpinx

A blocked, dilated and fluid filled Fallopian tube.

Hypothalamus

A small gland in the base of the brain and above the pituitary gland. It controls many body functions such as temperature and appetite, and regulates the secretion of hormones by the pituitary gland.

Hyperprolactinemia

This is the name given to the excess production of the hormone prolactin in both males or females. It may cause ovulation and menstrual disorders in females and sexual dysfunction in males. There are many causes including hypothyroidism, side effects of certain drugs and pituitary tumor.

Hyperthyroidism

Over production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism

Under production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus.

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

An X-ray of the uterus and womb in which a radio opaque dye is injected through the cervix into the uterus and tubes.

Hysteroscope

A thin fibre optic telescope that is inserted through the cervix to inspect the inside of the uterus.

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ICSI

Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection is a variation of IVF treatment, where a single sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of an egg. 

Idiopathic

No causes found.

Implantation

The bedding of the embryo  into the lining of the womb.

Impotence

Inability of a man to have or maintain an erection.

Infertility

Inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse.

Intrauterine insemination

Insemination of washed and prepared sperm into the uterus.

IUCD

Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device.

IVF

In Vitro Fertilization.

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Karyotype

Chromosome analysis of a person.

Klinefelter's syndrome

A chromosomal abnormality affecting males caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome. It is characterized by small testes, enlarged breasts, and the absence of facial and body hair.

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Laparoscope

A fibre optic telescope that is inserted through the abdomen to examine the inside of the abdomen and pelvis.

Laparotomy

A major abdominal surgery through a cut in the abdomen.

Leydig's cells

Cells within the testes that produce the hormone testosterone.

LH

Luteinizing (luteinising) hormone, a pituitary hormone that triggers ovulation and stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone. In males, LH stimulates the Leydig's cells to produce testosterone.

LH surge

The rapid rise of luteinizing hormone that usually occur in the middle of the cycle. It causes the follicle to release a mature egg.

Liquefaction

The process by which ejaculate turns from a jellylike consistency to liquid.

Live birth rate per cycle

The number of live births achieved from every 100-treatment cycle commenced.

Luteal phase

The second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation.

Luteal phase defect

A condition in which the endometrium (lining of the womb) do not develop adequately for implantation, mainly because of inadequate progesterone levels or due to inability of the endometrium to respond to progesterone. In a small minority of women, the cause can be attributed to hyperprolactinemia or abnormal thyroid gland functions. It is characterized by a shorter than normal luteal phase or one with a progesterone deficit.

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MAR

Mixed Agglutination Reaction, a test to check for the presence or absence of antisperm antibodies.

Menarche

A girls first menstrual cycle.

Menogon

A fertility drug given by injection and consists of FSH and LH.

Menopause

A condition when the ovaries ran out of eggs. It usually characterized by absence of periods, hot flushes, sweating and mood changes. The usual age for menopause is about 52 years.

Menstruation

The monthly bleed which takes place if no pregnancy occurs.

Menstrual cycle

A series of cyclical changes that occur in the female genital system each month.

MESA

Micro Epididymal Sperm Aspiration. A procedure to aspirate sperm from the epididymis.

Metrodine HP

A fertility drug given by injection and consists of a highly purified FSH.

Micromanipulation

The performance of surgery, injection, dissection, laser etc. under the microscope using specialized instruments (micromanipulators).

Microsurgery

Surgery performed under magnification using delicate instruments and precise techniques. It is generally used to repair small organs such as tubes and vas deferens.

Miscarriage

Loss of pregnancy from the womb before it is viable (capable of surviving independently outside the womb). Doctors usually use the term abortion instead of miscarriage. However, this is confusing to the layman who understands abortion as meaning the deliberate termination of pregnancy rather than accidental loss of a pregnancy.

Monozygotic

Means single. In monozygotic twins one fertilized egg seperates into two identical zygotes.

Morula

The fertilized egg after a few days of development when it forms a ball of cells.

Motility

The percentages of all moving sperm in a semen sample.

Multiple birth

Birth of more than one baby from a pregnancy.

Multiple birth rate

The percentage of all births in which more than one baby was born.

Multiple pregnancy

The percentage of all pregnancies in which two or more fetal hearts are present.

Myometrium

The middle muscular layer of the womb.

Myomectomy

Surgical removal of a fibroid.

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Necrozoospermia

All sperm in the ejaculate are dead.

Neonatal death

The death of a baby within 28 completed days of delivery.

Normegon

A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of FSH and LH.

Nucleus

The part of the cell that contains the genetic material DNA.

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OATS

Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OATS) means low sperm count, low sperm motility and a high proportion of abnormal sperm.

Oestrogens (Estrogens)

Female sex hormones, a group of hormones that are produced mainly by the ovaries. They are essential for normal sexual development (the breasts, vagina, womb, broad hips and rounded figure etc.) and for the reproductive system (make the cervical mucus amenable to the entry of sperm, prepare the endometrium and regulate the production of FSH and LH).

Oestradiol (Estradiol)

The most potent naturally occurring estrogens in humans.

OHSS

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A possible side effect with some fertility drugs. It is characterized by swollen, painful ovaries and, in some cases, the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and chest.

Oligomennorhoea

Infrequent periods.

Oligozoospermia

Low sperm count.

Oligoovulation

Infrequent ovulation.

Oophorectomy

The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.

Orgafol

A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of highly purified FSH.

Os

External and internal openings at each end of the cervical canal.

Ovaries

The two female sex glands which produce eggs and hormones.

Ovarian cyst

A fluid-filled cavity inside the ovary.

Ovulation

The release of a mature egg from its follicle.

Ovulatory cycle

A series of cyclical changes that occur within the ovary each month and result in the release of an egg.

Ovulation induction

The use of fertility drugs to stimulate ovulation if the woman is not producing eggs regularly. The aim is to restore physiological ovulation (single follicle). The aim of superovulation is to override physiology and stimulate multiple follicle development.

Ovum (oocyte)

An egg.

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PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, an abnormal condition in which the ovaries have many minute cysts and there is excess androgen (male hormone) production.

PCT

Post-coital test, a microscopic examination of a women's cervical mucus after intercourse to check the number and motility of sperm in the mucus.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Infection involving pelvic organs especially the tubes and ovaries. It may result in damage or blockage of the Fallopian tubes.

Pergonal (hMG)

A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of equal amounts of FSH and LH. It is recovered from the urine of post-menopausal women.

Perinatal death rate

The number of stillbirths and first week deaths per 1000 delivered (livebirths and stillbirths).

PESA

Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, this involves retrieving sperm directly from the epididymis using a needle.

Pituitary gland

A small gland located in the base of the brain and just beneath the hypothalamus, it secretes many hormones including FSH and LH.

PGD

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, the techniques by which embryos fertilized in vitro is tested for specific genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and hemophilia before being transferred into the uterus.

PGS

Preimplantation Genetic Screening is technique used to examine the embryo for aneuploidy (wrong number of chromosomes), and only transfer normal embryos.

Placenta

The afterbirth organ to which the developing embryo and fetus is connected by the umbilical cord.

Polyp

A small growth, usually benign protruding from the endometrium and dangle into the cavity of the womb. It may interfere with embryo implantation by acting like a coil. Polyps are usually removed surgically.

Pregnancy rate per cycle

The number of pregnancies achieved from every 100-treatment cycle commenced.

Pregnyl

A fertility drug given by injection and consists of Human chorionic gonadotropin.

Preterm delivery

The delivery before completion of 37 weeks of pregnancy

Premature menopause

A condition in which menopause occurs before the age of 40. It affects approximately 1% of women. In most cases there is no identifiable cause. The only effective treatment for infertility is IVF with donated eggs.

Profasi

A fertility drug given by injection and consists of Human chorionic gonadotropin.

Progesterone

A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum in the second half of the menstrual cycle to stimulate the endometrium and prepare it for implantation and maintains it should pregnancy occur, progesterone is produced in large quantities by the placenta.

Prostap

A long-acting GnRh agonist drug used to induce pituitary down-regulation.

Prostate gland

A chestnut-sized gland in the male that lies below the bladder and encircles the urethra where the ejaculatory ducts, the two vas differences, and the urethra join, it contributes fluid to the ejaculate.  

Puregon

A recombinant Follicle stimulating hormone 'fertility drug'.

PZD

Partial Zona Dissection, a micromanipulation procedure to help sperm penetrate the zona pellucida.

Prolactin

A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate milk production after childbirth.

Pronucleate stage

An early stage of fertilization, when the sperm and egg pronuclei are visible under the microscope.

Prostap

A long acting GnRh agonist drug used to induce pituitary down-regulation.

Prostatitis

Inflammation of the prostate gland usually as a result of infection.

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Recto electro-ejaculation

A technique used to obtain an ejaculate from spinal injured, or otherwise impotent men, where a special probe is inserted into the rectum to stimulate the seminal vesicles.

Radiotherapy

The use of radiation and radioactive substances to treat cancer.

Retrograde ejaculation

The backward release of ejaculate into the bladder instead of the urethra at time of male orgasm.

Rubella

Also called 'German measles', it is caused by an infectious virus and is characterized by general rashes and swollen glands. If infection occurs during the first few months of pregnancy it may cause severe congenital abnormalities.

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Salpingectomy

Surgical removal of the Fallopian tube.

Salpingitis

Inflammation of the Fallopian tubes caused by infection.

Salpingolysis

Removal of adhesions from around the tube which restricts its movements.

Salpingostomy

An operation to open up a blocked Fallopian tube, where the blockage is at the fimbria end.

Scrotum

Loose sack of skin containing the testes.

Semen analysis

Laboratory examination of semen to check the quality and quantity of sperm.

Selective fetal reduction

The process in which one or more normal fetus in a multiple pregnancy are destroyed.

Seminiferous tubules

The tiny tubules in the testicles in which sperm cells mature.

Seminal Vesicles

Tow small oblong glands behind the bladder, each joins a vas deferens.

Seminal fluid (semen)

The milky fluid that is ejaculated at orgasm. It contains fluid from the seminal vesicles, the prostate and the bulbourethral glands, in addition to sperm.

Seminal plasma

Fluid in which the sperm is ejaculated.

Septum

A wall that divides a cavity in half, such as the uterine septum

Sertoli's cells

Cells in the testes that nurture immature sperm until they reach maturity and are released into the seminiferous tubules.

Sexually transmitted disease

Also known as 'Venereal disease', is any disease transmitted by sexual intercourse such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia.

Spermatid

An immature sperm cell.

Spermatogenesis

The production of sperm.

Spermatozoa

Sperm.

Sperm capacitation

The chemical changes in the sperm that increase its ability to penetrate and fertilize an egg.

Sterilization

A surgical procedure designed to produce infertility such as tubal ligation and vasectomy.

Stillbirth

The birth of a dead infant.

Stimulated cycle

A treatment cycle in which fertility drugs are used to produce more eggs than usual in the woman's monthly cycle.

Subfertility

Term used to describe any impairment of fertility without implying permanent infertility.

Superovulation

The use of fertility drugs to promote the growth of multiple follicles.

Surgical sperm retrieval

The retrieval of sperm from the epididymis or testis, this technique must be used in conjunction with ICSI, as the sperm retrieved by this technique are incapable of fertilization by themselves.

SUZI

Subzonal insemination, where a single sperm is injected under the Zona of the egg.

Swim up

The technique for seperating sperm based on their ability to swim through a culture medium.

Syphilis

A venereal disease caused by spirochete. Acquired infection is transmitted by sexual contact. Congenital infection comes from a mother who has been infected during or shortly before pregnancy.

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TESE

Testicular Sperm Extraction, involves retrieving sperm directly from the testis.

Testis (testicle)

Male gonad which produces both sperm and male hormones.

TET

Tubal Embryo Transfer.

Thyroid gland

A large gland in the neck. It lies in front and on either side of the windpipe, it secretes thyroxin hormone which regulates growth and metabolism.

Testosterone

The principle and most potent male sex hormone. It is essential for normal sexual development (muscular body, broad shoulders, hair on the face, chest and limbs and deep voice etc.). It also plays a key role in the maturation of sperm within the testes.

Torsion

Twisting of an ovary or testicle and commonly results in obstruction of the blood supply of the organ. Urgent surgical correction may be needed.

Triptorelin

A long-acting GnRh agonist drug to induce pituitary down-regulation.

Trisomy

The presence of three chromosomes of one type instead of the normal two.

Tuboplasty

Surgical repair of damaged Fallopian tube.

Turner's syndrome

A chromosomal abnormality of the woman in which one of the sex chromosomes are missing. this results is abnormal development of the ovaries. Such women are usually of short stature, infertile, and never menstruate.

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Ultrasound scans

A technique used for visualizing internal organs, assessing their sizes and shapes by using high-frequency sound waves.

Undescended testis

Also known as cryptoorchidism. A term used to describe testis, which, at birth has not descended into the scrotum as normal. It occurs in 1% of male infants, usually one testis fails to descend. Such cases are usually associated with a variable degree of impaired sperm production. Undescended testes may be surgically corrected but the chance of restoring normal fertility is low.

Urethra

The muscular tube leading from the bladder to the end of the penis and carries urine and semen.

Uterus

The womb.

Uterine septum

A band of tissue in the midsection of the uterus that divide the normal uterine cavity.

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Vagina

The female organ of sexual intercourse; the birth canal.

Vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina.

Vaginismus

Vaginal spasm, inability to relax vaginal muscles before or during intercourse.

Varicocele

An abnormality where varicose veins (dilated veins) lie above one or both testicles; they are present in about 15% of men in the general population, and up to 40% of men attending infertility clinics. It usually causes no discomfort, but can cause infertility in some men. This may be due to an abnormally high temperature within the testicles.

Vas deferens (sperm duct)

The muscular tube that carries the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra (pleural is vasa defrentia).

Vasectomy

The operation to sterilize a man, in which the vasa deferentia are cut and tied back. It is usually performed under a local anesthetic.

Vasogram

An X-ray of the vas deferens.

Viscosity

Thickening of the semen.

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Washing the sperm

A procedure to remove the seminal fluid from the sperm.

Welfare of the child

The social and ethical considerations used when considering the well-being of an individual under the age of 18.

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ZIFT

Zygote Intra-Fallopian Transfer.

Zona pellucida

The protective coating surrounding the egg.

Zoladex

A long acting GnRh agonist drug used to induce 'down regulation' of the pituitary gland.

Zygote

A fertilized egg before cell division begins.

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END OF GLOSSARY

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